Monday, November 11, 2013

arts-harish-jan 12

1.     Indian Artifacts
The 19th century cross- cultural analysis of some diverse cultures brought out the fact that the world of colonialism was strongly grounded in the concept of cultural evolution. This idea further propagated that the progress of all societies occurs through the distinct evolutionary stages. The culture that we are talking about here originated from the Latin word “colere” which means to tend, guard, cultivate, till.  The culture or tradition of a region rests on three main pillars namely values, norms and artefacts. Values are the ideas that single out the important things in life, norms are the rules for human behaviour set in different religions and finally Indian artifacts are the things or material culture that reflects the values of that particular religion but they are tangible and manufactured by humans.
Like in other cultures, Indian artifacts from a particular age reflect the culture, traditions and customs of civilisations inhabiting the country during that age. Typical articles which can be included in the group of Indian artifacts are jewellery pieces, sculptures of Indian deities, exquisite paintings of that time, carvings made out of metals, wood, etc. A study of Indian artifacts would involve the study of the customs, traditions, and lives of the ancient times. Due to its diverse nature, Indian culture has been talked about worldwide and this diversity in culture has given rise to diversity in Indian artifacts of that time. Today, Indian artifacts are fit for museums, or for trading internationally. As Indian artifacts have great value, they represent a country in the international market.
2.     Indian Paintings
Art of a particular region is elemental in defining and describing the life and times of the common people of that region. Indian being a country rich in religious customs and traditions, Indian art has attained the recognition of being the cornerstone of the study of ancient Indian culture. Indian paintings are synonymous with Indian art.
In general Indian paintings are manifest in two forms, namely miniature paintings and wall paintings.  The wall paintings are exhibited by the Tanjore paintings of Tamil Nadu, which have excellent ornaments adorning them. This form of painting is made on wooden boards. The Phad paintings which are made on a cloth called as “Phad” and depict the life and times of the locals and heroes of that region. The Madhubani paintings of Mithila, which are also called as Mithila paintings, were decorated on the walls of the home and the prayer room by women in Mithila. Other forms of paintings are the Pichvai and the Kalamkari.
Miniature paintings mentioned above are the crowning glory of traditional Indian paintings. These handmade paintings are highly influenced by mural paintings and they represent the delicate and the intricate brushwork existing in the country. These paintings originated between the 11th and the 12th centuries and also earned worldwide recognition at that time. Due to their intricate and delicate detailing, they have been a strong source of influence on all the rulers of the country. These paintings originated in the state of Rajasthan. Ragas were the main theme of these paintings which were done majorly on paper.
3.     Batik Paintings
The beauty of Indian art is manifest in its many paintings, sculptures, amulets, jewellery, etc. These items represent the cultures and traditions of the people living in the country at a particular time. Different types of sculptures exist to represent the different styles of architectural prevalent in the country. Likewise, different styles of painting exist to represent the diverse nature of the people of this country. Indian paintings are as diverse as chalk and cheese. Right from the Madhubani paintings of Mithila to the Kalamkari paintings of Andhra Pradesh, the diversity in Indian paintings was not difficult to see. But one type of painting which was noteworthy was Batik Paintings.  These paintings are a unique combination of wax and dye mixed on cloth.
“Batik” in Japanese means writing on cloth. It traces its origins to the island of Java in Indonesia, way back almost 2000 years ago. This oldest art form uses the elementary technique, which can be traced back to India, some parts of Africa, Middle East countries and various regions of Asia. But in India, it became well known only after it was first used by the Shantiniketan School in Kolkatta. The three major stages involved in Batik paintings are waxing, dyeing and de-waxing. These main processes can be further broken down into further sub-processes. The fact that these paintings were used almost 2000 years ago speaks a lot about the superior technique and skill of ancient Indian craftsmen. Batik paintings have truly created a niche for themselves.
4.     Folk Art Paintings
The tradition and culture of any region is manifest in its many monuments and artefacts. Artists and craftsmen create these edifices so as to retain the remnants of the inhabitants that existed during those times. Likewise, folk art paintings depict the customs and traditions of the village folk of the country. 
Created by the village inhabitants, folk art paintings are specific forms of artwork by the people of the country. These are pictorial representations of the village artist’s perceptions of the tradition and culture of the villages. The subjects for these paintings are taken from the Holy epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata. Folk art paintings also bring out the skill of the village craftsmen which is manifested in their works depicting their tradition and culture. The sun, moon, stars, nature, trees; plants are some of the subjects that are covered by folk art paintingsFolk art paintings derive their colours from naturally occurring materials, clothes, earthen pots, etc.
India being a land with diverse religions and cultures, its folk art paintings are also diverse. Famous among them are the Warli paintings from Maharashtra, The Palas of Bengal and Orissa, Jain art of Gujrat, Kalamkari paintings of Andhra Pradesh.  All these paintings have some distinguishing feature that makes it distinct from others. Their disparity is evident in a study conducted by experts who unearthed that the painters of Bengal used sober subdued tones in their paintings, while the folk art paintings of Rajasthan are made with vibrant and lustrous colours. Folk art paintings have truly come a long way.
5.     Hindu Paintings
Indian has been a country rich in diverse cultures and traditions. This diverse culture is represented in its various art forms. The primary religion being practiced in the country is Hinduism. Therefore, a majority of the art forms of India represent Hindu cultures and traditions. So do Hindu paintings.
The superior and exquisite skill and artistry of the craftsmen of India is evident in the stylishly created Hindu paintings. The diversity prevalent in Hindu paintings is most emphasized by the Tanjore paintings of Tamil Nadu, the Phad paintings made from cloth, the Madhubani paintings of Mithila, the Pichvai paintings representing Lord Krishna and the Kalamkari from Andhra Pradesh. The Hindu community is credited with the propagation of the figurative form of worship. In other words, they worshipped their gods in their figurative forms. Therefore, Indian gods and goddesses were one of the main subjects of all Indian art forms ranging from sculptures to paintings to architecture.
This was manifest in the Mahavira paintings made by the Jain community. These Hindu paintings were famous in Gujarat and Karnataka. The Hindu religion was further propagated by the Hindu paintings of the religious epics like Ramayana, Mahabharata, etc. During the epoch of the Mughals, Ragmalas, Mythologies, and anecdotes of the great Rama, Sita and Krishna were painted in an approach persuaded by the Persian style of painting. Often, the royal patrons of those times also commissioned illustrations to be done by artists, which depicted their own court life, battle scenes, and hunting expeditions.
6.     Marble Paintings
The Indian continent is traditionally rich in natural resources. Moreover, its diverse cultures and traditions provide it with an uncommon heterogeneity. Due to this heterogeneity, its works of art are as diverse as chalk and cheese. This is because they are depictions of the life and times of the common people.
The richness in Indian arts is also manifest in its marble paintings. Rajasthan, in India is famous for its naturally occurring stone reserves. Marble is one of the important resources found in this region. In fact, the country takes pride in its marble stone reserves. Marble found in Rajasthan is used not only locally, but is also exported to foreign countries. A common use for this marble is in marble paintingsMarble painting is a popular craft in the state of Rajasthan. The recognition that Indian marble paintings have got worldwide is astounding. Credit for this is due to its skilful craftsmen.
Makrana in Rajasthan is one place which is famous for its marble reserves. In fact, there is a marble variety named after this region called as Makrana marble. The Taj Mahal, one of the Seven Wonders of the World was built with this very stone.  This monument has brought marble paintings from Rajasthan into the limelight. Marble paintings are adorning a variety of items like vases, traditional Indian water pots, bowls, and jewellery boxes, smoking pipes, lanterns or more useful products like bathroom accessories. Marble paintings provide the object a breathtaking look and make it more attractive. They are done in a variety of designs and colours.
7.     Mughal Paintings
India as a country is very adaptable. It has the knack of accepting new cultures and traditions and making it its own. This was evident during the period spanning the 16th and the 19th centuries. During this period, the Mughals started ruling India. They were responsible for creating what is today known as Mughal paintings.
The kings and queens of the Mughal period took keen interest in promoting Mughal arts and crafts. Many emperors like Akbar (1556-1605) made it a practice to encourage artisans. In fact, Akbar was responsible for creating a new capital in Fatehpur Sikri, where he collected numerous artisans from India and Persia. After him Jehangir continued this trend. He encouraged artists to paint portraits and durbar scenes. Next after him to propagate Mughal Paintings was Shah Jehan (1627-1658). Until the reign of Shah Jehan, craftsmen and artisans flocked the Mughal ruled states for work. But the popularity of Mughal Paintings started waning during the reign of Aurangzeb as he was not interested in the arts.
As far as style is concerned, Mughal paintings depict a particular style of Indian painting, which confines itself to illustrations on a book and done in miniatures. Of the two types of paintings made famous by Indian artisans, miniature paintings were widely used in the creation of Mughal paintings. As it is evident from above, Mughal paintings were a mix of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles. This is because they were done by artisans from India, Persia or the Islamic countries. Mughal royalty encouraged Mughal paintings as they wanted a record of their deeds in battle and their customs and traditions.
8.     Oils Paintings
Traditionally, India is a land of superior arts and architecture. Its excellence in the ancient arts and architecture is manifest in its various art forms and its architecturally superior structures. Just like its sculptures its stylishly designed intricate architectural marvels paintings also form a part of the rich culture and tradition of the country. Oils paintings are represented in a majority among Indian paintings. In order to make oils paintings, some elementary materials like oil paints, mediums, brushes and supports are required. When one uses the brushes dipped in oils paints to paint over the mediums, then the result is superior oils paints.
To elaborate, there are two types of oils paints, student colours and artist’s colours. Student’s paints are relatively cheaper than the ones for artists, due to the inferior quality of oils used in them.  Not only that, they are also produced in large quantities. In addition to the oils paints, one will also need thinners, a bottle of painting medium, brushes, support and an object to paint. The medium is selected depending upon one’s experience in making oils paintings. As for brushes, smaller round brushes are used for small details while big softer flat brushes for abstract blended oils paintings.
As for supports, one can choose from among a plethora of available options like canvas, metal, masonry, disposable plates, etc. The object to be painted can come either from nature or from one’s own experiences. All in all, the materials used for making oils paintings should depend upon the proficiency of the artist
9.     Persian Paintings
Of the two forms of Indian paintings, Persian paintings represent miniature paintings, which exhibit the superior craftsmanship of the artisans of the Mongol and Timurid Periods. A typical miniature Persian paintings represents the mythological and religious themes of those times. Persian paintings are similar in many ways to Islamic paintings.
Although, the origin of the Persian paintings is difficult to trace, one can safely assume that this started gaining wider acceptance during the 13th to the 16th century. This was during the reign of the Mongol and Timurid rulers. The Persian paintings of those times can be credited to the proliferation of a huge number of Chinese artisans in the region, resulting in their exhaustive influence on Persian art. Persian paintings greatly resemble the Chinese paintings of Song and Yuan dynasties. The visually rich colours used in these paintings provide them with an intriguing effect.  Although, these are not representative, they hold great meaning historically.
The Chinese painters put great emphasis on the union of poetry and paintings in their works of art. This quality of theirs was also evident in the Persian paintings of their time. There were however, some dedicated schools of thought that were represented in the Persian paintings made by these Chinese artists. There were namely Shiraz, Tabriz, and Herat. Where the Shiraz, laid great emphasis on symmetry of designs, the Tabriz school represented architectural and landscape details, and the Herat, portrayed people in their daily lives.  Miniature Persian paintings were credited with the quality of having a mystical value, which took days to unfold.

10.  Patachitra Paintings
Traditional Indian paintings are the window for society. They act as information tools about the life and times of the people of those times. There are many types of Indian paintings like Mughal paintings, Warli paintings, Kalamkari works, Persian paintings, etc. Here the discussion will be centred on Patachitra paintings.
With the changing times, other forms of paintings have evolved in terms of new materials and new techniques, but the art of Patachitra paintings has still remained where it was before. Not much is written about this form of art in traditional information sources. But in order to get first hand information about it, one needs to go to Raghurajpur in Orissa, where some of the best Patachitra artists have made their abode.
The process of making Patachitra paintings includes first, soaking the tamarind seeds in water, in an earthen pot and then boiling them to get a gummy solution. This process is called as “Nirya Kalpa”. Then, two coarse cotton pieces of the same dimension are pasted together using this solution.  This gives the base canvas or the “Pata” for the Patachitra paintings. Chalk, clay or stone powder is then mixed with this tamarind solution and applied on both sides of the canvas surface, giving a semi-absorbent surface.  After that the canvas is tarnished first with coarse grain, and then with polished stones to give it a smooth surface. What results will be a high tensile strength canvas which will be ready to receive the lines that are to be made on it.
11.  Sikh Art Paintings
Indian paintings are available in a variety of designs and styles. Right from the murals to the miniature paintings the variety in Indian paintings is immense. Among the miniature paintings, the Pahari style of paintings also called as Sikh Art paintings is most famous. The Sikh Art paintings got so popular that at one time, non-Pahari paintings were sold as Sikh art paintings.
Most of the artisans who were involved in the making of sikh art paintings came from either Basohli, Chamba, Guler or Kangra. They had sought patronage in the hill states of the Himalayas after the Punjab courts got shattered due to the changing political and colonial scenario. Traditional sikh art paintings were created in the solitary confines of the hill states of the Himalayas where the atmosphere was conducive to their creation. This was during the 17th to the 19th century AD. There were almost 22 hill states which had Rajputs as rulers, who were good judges and patrons of traditional Indian art.
Sikh art paintings mainly depict the Himalayan Mountains in all its glory. Their work strives to make their landscape even more picturesque. The minute differences between the sikh art paintings of the Nurpur, Basohli, Chamba, Guler, Kangra, Mandi, Kullu and Bilaspur regions have provided the variety required in traditional sikh art paintings. Of all these schools of sikh art paintings, the Basohli school of painting got immortalised as it was considered as the metaphor for dynamic, audacious and imaginative style of painting. Sikh art paintings of this school were painted in vivid colours
12.  South Indian Paintings
Traditional Indian paintings of an era have been a window to the cultures and traditions of a particular region in that era. This can be seen in the different designs of Indian paintings that are created by skilful Indian artisans over the years. South Indian paintings form an integral part of the plethora of traditional Indian paintings.
Indian paintings are named either after the regions where they are found or after the technique that is used to make them. For example, Batic paintings are named after the technique of making these paintings on cloth, Pichvai paintings are so named due to their distinct style, Phad paintings are called so as they are made on a cloth called “Phad”, etc. Similarly, South Indian paintings are so called as they hail from south India. The two types of South Indian paintings are Tanjore paintings and Kalamkari paintings.
Tanjore paintings are from Tamil Nadu and they are distinguished by their excellent ornaments. The speciality of this art form is that it is totally made on wooden boards. The Kalamkari paintings, another variety of South Indian paintings, originated in Andhra Pradesh, and are mainly made on the clothes with a pointed bamboo. This pointed bamboo is called as “kalam” from where the name of this painting comes. Unlike Tanjore paintings, Kalamkari paintings require some surface preparation before a brush can be used to make them. In the latter, the cloth has to be washed to remove starch from it and then it is dipped in a solution of myrobalam, milk and water.
13.  Tantra Paintings
From the ancient times, Indian people have been practising the Vedic arts. These arts have been credited with solving many health problems. These Vedic arts propagate the discipline of Yoga. This is further elaborated in the karma yoga, jnana yoga, bhakti yoga and raja yoga.  These forms of yoga are being followed for quite some time now.
Another discipline of Yoga, which was not discovered earlier, but is a recent discovery, is Tantra Yoga.  This discipline of Yoga focussed on the devotional aspects of Bhakti Yoga, which talks about the union of opposites, meaning the union of the shakti male energy with the shiva female energy to give the progeny. This discipline further elaborates the different poses used in this form of Yoga. The paintings depicting these poses are called as Tantra paintings. Tantra derived from Vedic or Hindu religions is also called as Tibetian Lamaism.
The Tantra force strives to transform the basic human forms of desire and passion into spiritual growth and development. Unlike traditional Buddhism, the art of Tantra seeks to validate the primal sexual urges faced by a human body. Tantra paintings depict the different poses taken during Tantra Yoga or during intercourse, by a normal human couple. Tantra paintings depict the teachings of the two forms of Buddhism namely Mahayana and Hinayana. Where Mahayana talks about the human emancipation by the doctrine of selflessness, its contemporary, Hinayana talks about personal gratification. Tantra paintings have been credited with the achievement of showing these two forms of Buddhism.
14.  Thangka Paintings
The Indian sub-continent is full of countries rich in their cultural heritage. Countries like Pakistan, Tibet, China, Bhutan, etc have their own cultures and their own religions. These religions are as distinct as chalk and cheese.  The thangka culture perpetrated in Tibet, the capital of Nepal, has given rise to thangka paintings.
The word “Thangka” originated from the Tibetan word “Thang” which means flat. This word describes the surface on which the thangka paintings are made. The thangka paintings come in two forms namely the goku (cloth images) and gochen thangka (precious cloth scroll images). The former are water colours on canvas and the latter are woven in silk, embroidered or sewn together. As far as the origin of Thangka paintings is concerned, it dates back to the time of the death of the Buddha Sakyamuni (563-483 BC). Although these paintings are depicting Tibetian culture, they are also considered a part of traditional Indian paintings.
The popularity of these thangka paintings grew to such an extent during the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries that they were being used throughout the Tibetian Buddhist region.  Regions like Mongolia, Ladakh, Bhutan caught up in using these paintings. The thangka paintings had three different uses. They were used by the wondering monks to instill religion and historical teachings in rural population. Thangkas paintings were used for meditation. Finally, they were also used for consecration and as gifts to monasteries. The popularity of the thangka paintings compelled the people of the Himalayan regions to formalize this art through schools teaching thangka paintings.
15.  Wild Life Paintings
The earliest wild life paintings were found in France approximately 32,000 years ago. They depicted horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffaloes, and hunting humans. The earliest known wild life paintings were created around 40,000 years ago during the Upper Palaeolithic Period. These are artworks are unlike any decorations found in living areas as they adorn caves which are seldom inhabited by humans.
The evidence provided above suggests that Wild Life paintings have been at large for quite some time now. Wild Life Paintings can be considered as one of the most elementary forms of cave art. This is because they are majorly found on the walls of caves. The common subjects depicted by these cave paintings are large wild animals including bison, horses, aurochs, lions, bears, and deer. During these times, people looked at wild life creatures merely as food items and not as objects to be displayed in paintings.  The trend of exhibiting wild life in paintings has started recently.
Wild life paintings in different countries have different subjects depending upon the economic and cultural situation of that country. For example, wild life paintings in Africa invariably represent larger animals, whereas those from America depict animal species like rabbit, puma, lynx, deer, wild goat and sheep, and in Australian wild life paintings cover rock paintings Wild life paintings on caves/rocks in Australia include local species of animals, fish and turtles. A very famous wild life painter by the name of Salvadore Dali which existed from the 1920s onwards, used wild life in his depictions of “Depictions with Butterflies”
16.  Indian Miniature Painting    
Indian art forms are famous throughout the whole world. They have created a name for the country and are being exported to foreign countries as priceless pieces of art fit for connoisseurs of stylish art. The most widely exported items of artworks are Indian miniature painting  
Traditional Indian paintings are found in two forms, the larger ones and the Indian miniature painting. The former are found mostly in caves and temples, whereas the latter are more widely used by the human civilisation. Actually, Indian miniature painting exists in many styles and designs. Each type of Indian miniature painting is named either based on the region where it is found or on the technique used for its making. Indian miniature painting is generally executed on perishable surfaces like paper or cloth.   The origin of Indian miniature painting can be traced back to the 11th and 12th centuries.
Notwithstanding the above fact, Indian miniature painting is still widely being used by people all over the world. The popularity of Indian miniature painting is due to the superior craftsmanship of the artisans who create these paintings. The works of art are at times so delicate that it becomes difficult to believe that it has been done by a human hand. The Indian miniature painting were made by so many artisans in so many different styles that each style culminated into a school of Indian miniature painting. This gave birth to the Rajasthan, Jaipur and Jodhpur Schools of Indian miniature painting. Each of them has its own distinct style.
17.  Indian Artists Painting
The tradition of traditional Indian paintings dates back to almost 40,000 years. From then on, Indian artists painting have evolved over the years and today are considered as items of export value.  This caravan of Indian artists painting has been passed over by different rulers to their successors and therefore is alive even today.
The Indian artists painting has passed through the hands of Indian artists from various distinct periods and having their own distinct styles. Traditional Indian artists’ painting is said to possess distinct styles and types. Indian artists painting have come a long way from the Mughal era to the contemporary times, when it is being distributed in its figurative form. Contemporary Indian artists painting, is in high demand not only in India, but also in foreign countries. This earns precious foreign exchange thus reducing the fiscal deficit.  Thus Indian artists’ paintings are of intrinsic value.
Indian artists’ painting has been representative of the life and times of the people of that region. As Mughal paintings represented the lives of the inhabitants during the Mughal era, the Buddhist paintings depict the life and teachings of Gautam Buddha. Similarly, the Thangka paintings bring out the tradition of the Tibetians, and the Tantra paintings propagate the union of the male and the female species. Thus each style of Indian artists painting brings out, the distinct style of paintings prevalent during those times. As they are symbols of the life and times of their eras, Indian artists’ paintings are said to be windows to that era.
18.   Bani Thani Painting
Indian paintings have been the cynosure of all eyes worldwide. They are as distinct as chalk and cheese when it comes to styles and designs. Indian paintings come in various designs and styles like the Batic paintings, the Kalamkari paintings, Mughal paintings, Tanjore paintings, etc. This is not an exhaustive list of paintings but does represent some of the most widely popular ones. Indian paintings have been said to represent the status and personal characteristics of people of the house. The Indian paintings of the Kishengarh School of art can be credited to Raja Sawant Singh, also known as Nagari Das, who was the originator of these paintings.
These paintings belonging to the Kishengarh School of art are also called as Bani Thani painting Traditional Rajput paintings are also classified as Bani Thani painting. These paintings represented the tales of the times of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Other Indian Holy books like the Bhagwat Purana were also represented in these Bani Thani painting. The regions that contributed to the development of the Bani Thani painting were Bikaner, Bundi, Kota, Amber, Jaipur, and Kishengarh. The region of Bundi where court scenes of noblemen and amours attracted maximum artistic attention is where the Bani Thani painting originated.
Traditional Rajput paintings were in the form of miniature pictures that were placed in manuscripts. However, when one talks of Bani Thani painting a host of woks being painted on the walls of the royal courts and the fort chambers are also considered. Bani Thani painting represent the rich culture and heritage of the Rajasthan region.

19.  Dancing Ganesha
India is full of many items of religious and historical importance. Some of these items are its forts, monuments, temples, caves, etc. But with all these, there are also the Indian paintings that depict Indian cultures and traditions that cannot be forgotten.  The Hindu religion, the most practised religion in India, propagated the worship of figures of gods and goddesses. The most important among them are Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesh. But one god that is worshipped at the start of every ceremony is the Dancing Ganesha.
Folk lore goes that this god having the head of an elephant, and riding a mouse, the lowliest of creatures, is said to get angry easily. Hence it is treated with utmost care and compassion. His devotees never ignore him. During his birthday i.e. during Ganesh Chaturthi, a majority of homes in Maharashtra buy idols of this elephant god and get it home. They then worship him for a designated period and then bid him goodbye by immersing him in a nearby river or lake. However, some people are so drawn to this elephant god that they prefer wearing a pendant which carries the dancing ganesha.
The favourite food of the dancing ganesha is ladoos. During his festival, people make either ladoos made from jaggery or sugar. They worship the dancing ganesha five times a day, perform aarti and distribute the ladoos to their near and dear ones.  This ritual of celebrating Ganesh Chaturthi, which was started long back, is still being continued. The dancing ganesha is feted by people of all religions.
20.  Metalware
Indian antiques have been much admired and feted in all the parts of the world. They are also available as metal items called as metalware. Traditional metal art is a prominent item in Indian artwork. Metalware is available in the form of different items like amulets, figurines of gods and goddesses, etc.
Metalware being composed of metals is a high value item and therefore it cannot be replaced at the drop of a hat. Any metalware item has to be checked for repair before they can be disposed off. But not many people know the art of repairing such metalware items. This is because no one has taken the initiative to learn the craft. Most metal craft workers neglect a virtual goldmine situated right in front of their eyes. This is nothing but the field of repairing damaged or disfigured metalware. Not many metal repair shops are available today to repair the damaged items of metalware.
This shortage of metalware items repair shops can be exploited by anyone who has an inclination to study the art of metalware repair. The activity of repairing metalware items requires special equipments. First and foremost, a vice is required, which can hold the metalware item to be repaired while it is being repaired. Another piece of equipment is a gas torch which proves an invaluable source of heat for soldering and loosening jammed parts. Many miscellaneous tools like a hacksaw and pliers are also recommended to be used for metalware restoration. The art of metalware repair is not easy to learn.
21.  Painted Metalware
Fancy metalware items form an integral part of all traditional Indian crafts. By nature, metal being a heavy material, the items made from it, are rare and consequently expensive. Therefore, it becomes necessary to repair damaged pieces of metalware. Unfortunately, not many shops are doing the repair of metalware items.
This shortage of shops of metalware repair can be attributed to the fact that the art of metalware repair is not common among the people. Repairing metalware items requires special skills and equipments which cannot be learnt by anyone and everyone. Only those people who are genuinely interested in the art take the initiative to learn the trade. Repair of metalware items requires equipments like a vice, hacksaw, pliers, and gas torch.  This list is not exhaustive but indicative. However, a comprehensive toolkit can be built up to repair metalware items. There are many resources on the internet which lay down the equipments and the method of repair of metalware items.
Painting of metalware items can be a good option to repair them. Metal being prone to corrosion, is generally covered with any anti-corrosive pigment or liquid. This pigment is painted on the metalware item, totally covering it. This prevents the ingress of moisture in the metal piece and its consequent corrosion. Painted metalware can be either painted with zinc oxide, galvanizing material or epoxy materials. The whole idea of having an epoxy coated painted metalware item is to prevent external conditions from affecting the metal. Painted metalware in different colours and hues gives the metal a new dimension. No longer will it look dull and drab.
22.  Stonework
Home décor has come a long way from being an activity that was done by the woman of the house. During the ancient times, usually, the housewife of the house, used to decorate the house by referring to books and literature on the subject. Not any longer. Today interior decoration and designing has become a field in itself.
One of the prominent materials that are used in contemporary interior home décor is stone. As is common knowledge stone is a naturally occurring material in India, therefore the use of this material in designing one’s home can be easily done. There are many stones like marble, granite, artificial marble, etc that are generally used in home décor. Stonework is not only elegant, but it also adds a new dimension and an element of character to any home décor.  The various ways in which rock or natural stone can be utilized in home décor is in landscaping, fencing and sculpture, on the exterior façade and interior decoration of the house.
As mentioned above there are mainly stonework is utilized in landscaping, fencing, sculpture, exterior façade and interior decoration of the house. As far as landscaping is concerned, river rock can be used in preparation of a garden path or borders of flowerbeds or shrubbery. Fencing is a technique in which the boulders are cemented together in a bricklike way, in the process creating an interlocking fence. This interlocking goes a long way in making the fence more durable. Sculptures are a mere stack of boulders and rocks together. These may be made more attractive by special designs. Exterior facades today incorporate architectural stonework in their designs.
23.  Stone Carving
Indian arts and crafts of the ancient times are punctuated by many monuments like the Sanchi Stupa, Ashoka Pillar, etc. Naturally occurring stones in various regions of Central India is the raw material used for the making of these monuments. Although ancient, stone carving is still very popular all over the world.
Marble or stones are used to make stone carving. These stones are available locally. The art of stone carving is carried out using certain designated tools like chisels, hammers, etc. Choosing an appropriate tool for making stone carving is an art in itself. The use of stone chisels and hammers in the making of stone carvings talks of the old school version of this craft. This version was practised since the ancient times, when contemporary methods being used today were not available. With the passage of time, the act of stone carving has got reinforced by the use of modern instruments.
Over time, the type and style of the stone chisels and the hammer used for stone carving are being updated; they are not yet on the threshold of technological advancements in stone carving tools. One tool that can be looked at favourably for this activity is the diamond drill. Diamond drills have revolutionized the art of stone carving so much so that now it is possible to create tiny design features thanks to the adoption of the diamond drill. Stone carving artists use the diamond drill as one of its most advanced tools for making stone carving from stone masonry.
24.  Marble Inlay Work
Tourists from around the world visit India to see its colourful and lively traditions, food and natural beauty and its intricately carved handicrafts. In fact, India happens to be a treasure island when it comes to handicrafts with diverse cultures. So picking up a suitable handicraft piece to take back home would not be a problem.
There are a number of handicraft items in India including but not limited to handmade furniture, carved or painted furniture. Jewellery, metal craft, paintings, pottery, stone craft, marble inlay work, different types of embellished textiles, wooden handicrafts, etc. These items are both of large and miniature varieties. Some of these items like the marble statues, heavy furniture items, etc cannot be taken back. But some handicraft suppliers do have a tie-up with international cargo handlers who affect the transit of these heavy items too.  Although, these prove to be very costly, some buyers utilize their services for their benefit.
Agra, a city located in the heart of the city of Delhi, is one of the most alluring cities of India. This city has attracted visitors not only from India, but throughout the world. The attraction of the city of Agra is akin to that felt by the people towards the cities displaying Mughal splendour. The fine monuments of the Mughal era are only matched by the Taj Mahal, one among the Seven Wonders of the World, and the only reason why Agra happens to be on the world map of preferred tourist destinations worldwide. This city is also famous for its superior marble inlay work.
25.  Blue Pottery
Rajasthan, a state in Central India, is a region famous for its arts and crafts. It has a great legacy in terms of superior forms of stylishly designed handicrafts. So much so that tourists visit this place just to gape at the superior craftsmanship of the artisans of this region.
There are many items from Rajasthan which have gained worldwide recognition. The primary among them are Rajasthani jewellery, paintings, metal crafts, blue pottery, leather wares, textiles, carpets and durries, woodcraft, etc. Home décor items like ceramics, terracotta, conch, blue pottery, etc bring nature to one home. With an efficient use of the right designs of blue pottery items, one can boast of a home that can become one’s pride and the neighbour’s envy. Decoration of one’s home with earthen ware includes the use of Blue pottery items. Although, originally found in Rajasthan, these items of home décor are used throughout the world in interior decoration.

Blue pottery is said to create a startling effect with its blue colours and the richly painted exteriors in Royal Rajasthan paintings. These features make this item a must have for one’s home décor. These paintings of Royal Rajasthan are intricately designed to create a royal effect through the use of vases, bowls, matkas, or surahis. Also on display on these items of blue pottery are traditional Mughal paintings of the life and times of the Mughal Empire. Custom blue pottery items like a candle stand, etc offer the variety required in home décor.  Mirror works also figure prominently in the items of blue pottery

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